# FAQs

• ## How do I read the path analysis?

Path analysis is statistical visualization based on a two-level regression and structural equation analysis. While the color of the lines represents the nature of the relationship, meaning positive (blue) or negative (pink), the thickness of the lines represents the strength of the relationship. The path analysis is directional, meaning the influence should be read from left to right. In other words, the box on the far right shows the desirable outcome, while the first level boxes to its left are the drivers that predict that outcome, and the second level of boxes in the far left are the drivers of the drivers, enabling to look “behind the curtain”. Although there is directionality, the accurate statistical representation of this data is based on a linear regression (referring a directional correlation that reveals predictors) rather than causality. While the first phase of the USE process provides a snapshot and statistically significant and directional correlation, the second phase will be able to provide causality.
• ## How are the scores on the heat maps calculated?

The heat map scores range from 0 to 10 and are based on the findings from the general population survey, in depth expert interviews and school survey. Each score is based on a set of questionnaire or interview guide items, robustly designed in line with global best practices and then calibrated to the context. The questionnaires and discussion guide items are customized to assess specific indicators, which are then statistically scaled taking into account weights and demographic balances to produce scores that measure each indicator.
• ## How are the scores on the heat maps calculated?

The heat map scores range from 0 to 10 and are based on the findings from the general population survey, the school survey and the expert scoring interviews. Each score is measured with multiple questionnaire or interview guide items, robustly designed in line with global best practices and then calibrated to the eastern Ukraine context, which are then worked together to form a scale from 0 to 10.
• ## What is a good score and what is a bad score?

Each score indicates the level of a particular issue on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 and 10 represent polar opposites in relation to the indicator illustrated on the heat map. For instance, if we take personal security, 10 is an ideal (perfect) score and nothing more or better can be achieved, meaning that every individual feels safe from violence in their community, at night and in the streets. In this example, 0 represents the worst, where every individual experiences insecurity and does not feel safe at all. However, it is important to note that a score of 0 is not always bad, and a score of 10 not always good. For example, a score of 0 for migration tendency indicates that nobody wants to leave or even thinks about leaving, while 10 indicates that everybody wants to leave or is pondering about leaving.
• ## Can I compare USE scores to SCORE scores from other countries?

UN Social Cohesion and Reconciliation Index for Eastern Ukraine (USE) builds on the SCORE methodology, which draws from multidisciplinary research and literature, and encompasses over 70 indicators. Many of the USE indicators have been used in other SCORE contexts in other counties. However, indicators are always calibrated to the specifics of each country or region. While it is possible to make comparisons between countries and regions for some indicators, such as those related to psychosocial functioning, others (such as economic and inter-group relation indicators) are highly customized and contextual. Ultimately, the concept of social cohesion is specifically calibrated for the east of Ukraine. The ultimate aim of USE is not to compare scores for social cohesion in eastern Ukraine to scores for social cohesion in other countries, but to understand local and regional social, political and economic issues and dynamics in order to contribute to evidence-based policy making.
• ## What is the difference between an outcome, a component and an indicator?

Outcomes are desired end results. There are four USE outcomes for the general population component: social connectedness and belonging, tolerant and socially responsible citizenship, adaptive psychosocial functioning, and mitigating negative population trends. The outcomes for the school survey component are: non-violent active civic participation, mitigating negative population trends, reducing internalizing and externalizing problems, and preventing bullying and victimization. Each outcome is measured by several indicators, for example the outcome social connectedness and belonging is measured by the indicators neighborhood support, social exclusion and openness towards various groups in society.
• ## How were the USE indicators selected?

UN Social Cohesion and Reconciliation Index for Eastern Ukraine is based on participatory research principles that emphasize inclusive stakeholder consultations in the design and data interpretation phases. While there is a SCORE repository of global indicators, each context requires extensive consultations with local, regional and national stakeholders during the design process. These consultations result in a conceptual model that maps out salient issues and hypotheses. The conceptual model is then translated into indicators, which are then validated with evidence and various statistical analysis tools to understand the relationships between them (e.g., path analysis).
• ## What is the difference between USE and SCORE Ukraine?

The national Ukraine SCORE conducted by USAID/UCBI in 2016 was nation-wide and covered a wider set of issues. While USE builds upon these results (and those from other surveys) to ensure complementarity, USE was developed with a very specific focus on the east of Ukraine in a way that allows for a detailed understanding of and comparison between not only oblasts but also clusters of raions in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts.
• ## When will the next USE wave take place?

The fieldwork for the 2018 USE wave will start in second quarter of 2018. While the methodology and overall structure and content of the questionnaires and discussion guides will remain the same in order for the results to be comparable over time, some of the indicators will be revised based on the 2017 analysis and feedback from regional and national stakeholders. In other words, while the first USE wave provides a comprehensive snapshot and strong benchmark of societal ecology in east of Ukraine, the second wave will allow for a further unpacking of its dynamics.
• ## What can USE results be used for?

Combining the USE heat maps with the demographics break-downs and the path analysis provides a detailed understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the different aspects of social cohesion in different locations and within different groups. This provides an evidence-based starting point for designing a response to build stronger communities, institutions and solidarity in the five eastern oblasts.